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许谋清【附真题班报名信息】 【高危!极可能考!全文分享!】真题班中的一篇高危真题分享:卵发育的理论-康老师托福机经

【附真题班报名信息】 【高危!极可能考!全文分享!】真题班中的一篇高危真题分享:卵发育的理论-康老师托福机经
Models of Egg Development是2015年考过的一篇文章,也是真题班范围里的一篇近期被考几率比较大的文章,尤其是考虑到最近真题班连续整个三月和四月每场听说读写真题都命中(原文原题带音频带答案郑棋元,上课有讲解,课后有答疑),此篇很可能在5/6月份考出。本文对真题班范围中的这篇文章予以全文分享,按要求操作,可获得此篇高危题的答案。限时领取。现在报名真题班有听说读写全部真题和答案,讲解。
5月13/20/27日6月3/10日/25日真题班开报!托福真题班提升实力+命中双重提分,5月8日-18日12次课34小时(现在报名先给现在这期的直播和录播,相当于听两期),YY直播,每次课后给录播,晚上有事错过直播或者复习都可以随时看录播,录播可以随时反复看,电脑/PAD/手机上都可以学习,并且可以随时提问包答疑,讲解真题+方法,方法部分以阅读为例,思想可以参考【这里】,真题班的高危真题包括阅读50篇以上的真题并有讲解和解析灵蛇舞 ,听力60篇左右的真题带音频并有讲解和解析,12套口语带音频带录音示范,10套写作带音频带范文,独立口语独立写作更是数十套,且有话题分类和素材总结)和方法讲解,现在报名还送超多真题以外的干货,如听力学科高频词与音频,长难句系统讲解(补语法)。报名可以参考本文最下方的报名方式,或者对本平台回复“报名”获取报名方式蒋嘉莹 ,或描下方二维码后加好友(或搜索微信号sijianqifa3)咨询和联系报名(也可以咨询),其中淘宝报名链接为:
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4月15日托福出分啦雷克小流氓 ,真题班学员怒砍110分/105分左右/以上或进步15分以上,本文分享部分经验。3月份三次考试+4月1日15日23日连续命中,每次考试,四箭齐发真题班每场全都中了!最近出分的这一场4月15日,真题班4月15日阅读考了四套题(但四套题篇目里有重合,比如命中的Historical Trends in European Urban Design在多套考了),听力考了三套题,据不完全统计,真题班在4月15日至少命中了三篇阅读(分别是Gondawana,许谋清 Historical Trends in European Urban Design和Bird Colonies)和两篇听力(女生去费城学术会议费用报销和心理学俱乐部错过并询问project)和几道口语和独立写作!命中情况和命中题目的原文分享可以参考【命中原文1】,【命中原文2】和【命中原文3】。真题班不仅仅是通过方法+要点的讲解和这些高危真题的练习和讲解提高了实力,而且命中的题目不仅仅保障了正确率,为其他题目赢得了时间,而且提高了信心和士气,考试更容易发挥出自己的实力。
Models of Egg Development
Paragraph1: Several different theories have been put forward to explain how the hard-shelled eggs of land-dwelling reptiles (e.g. lizards) evolved from the soft eggs that amphibians (e.g. frogs and toads) lay in water. The Romer model of egg development is named after the late Alfred Romer, a paleontologist who also became director of the Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology. His specialty was early reptiles because, he felt, they were the key to understanding the great reptile diversification seen in the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras (around 230 million years ago). 【Romer's hypothesis was that some aquatic amphibians--that is, amphibians living in water--called anthracosaurs began to lay their eggs on land at about the time that they were evolving reptile-like skeletal features. Indeed, some of these early amphibians and earliest reptiles are so similar in their skeletons that the exact transition point from one to the other is still difficult to determine.】Eventually, though, the transition was made, but these early reptiles remained aquatic. The advantage for laying eggs on land was primarily to avoid the aquatic larval (pre-adult) stage during which immature amphibians live exclusivelyin water with its inherent risk of predators and drying of ponds. However, the land has its own set of dangers, not least of which is the drying effect of the atmosphere. To cope with these problems, a series of protective membranes developed around the egg, including a hard shell. Only later did the reptiles completely abandon an aquatic lifestyle.
【Romer's hypothesis was that some aquatic amphibians--that is, amphibians living in water--called anthracosaurs began to lay their eggs on land at about the time that they were evolving reptile-like skeletal features.Indeed夕阳朝乾 , some of these early amphibians and earliest reptiles are so similar in their skeletons that the exact transition point from one to the other is still difficult to determine.】
1..Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
○During the period that early amphibians changed into reptiles, their skeletons were exactly the same.
○It is difficult to identify the time that early amphibians changed to reptiles because their skeletons look so much alike.
○The skeletons of some early amphibians and reptiles are so similar that it is difficult to say which are amphibians and which are reptiles.
○Early amphibians and reptiles had the same kind of skeleton at the same point in time.
2..The word exclusively in the passage is closest in meaning to
○only
○initially
○primarily
○temporarily
3..According to paragraph 1, aquatic amphibians laid their eggs on land in order to
○enable young amphibians to benefit from a dry atmosphere
○ensure the rapid development of a hard shell
○enable young amphibians to evolve features necessary for living on land
○protect young amphibians from the dangers associated with life in the water
Paragraph2: Another hypothesis was proposed by German paleontologist Rolf Kohring, whose specialty is fossil eggs. In Kohring's model, amphibians during the Mississippian epoch (360¨C320 million years ago) spread into nutrient-poor or cooler water. Because of the harsher conditions, eggs were produced with larger yolks, that is季如风 , more nutrients for the embryo. █With larger yolks, the eggs were bigger, and fewer of them could be produced by the female--hundreds rather than thousands.█To keep the larger egg intact, one or more membranes were developed, including one that surrounded and protected the egg. █This outer membrane provided a place to safely store calcium ions, which are poisonous. █Accumulatingthe calcium in a hard shell then made it possible for the egg to be laid on land (it was pre-adapted to be laid there.)
4..The word Accumulating in the passage is closest in meaning to
○Forcing
○Collecting
○Distributing
○Isolating
5..In paragraph 2, why does the author mention the information about calcium ions
○To explain Koherig's theory that amphibian eggs developed at least two protective outer membranes
○To explain that the calcium in a hard shell is not poisonous when the egg is laid on land
○To explain why, according to Kohring, a hard shell evolved
○To explain why only the outer membrane stored calcium
6..Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the relationship between eggs and water temperature
○Eggs needed adaptations to survive in cold water.
○Eggs needed warm water to survive.
○Smaller eggs were produced in cold water.
○Fewer eggs were produced in warm water.
7..According to paragraph 2, all of the following are true of the eggs of amphibians during the Mississippian epoch EXCEPT:
○They had hard shells made from calcium ions.
○They had larger yolks than previously.
○They had protective membranes.
○They were produced in larger quantities than previously.
Paragraph3: One other model we should consider is the anti-predator hypothesis proposed by Gary and Mary Packard to explain the evolution of the hard-shelled egg. Their model was not concerned with the development of membranes surrounding the egg but continues the story after these membranes appeared. The Packards assume that the earliest reptiles laid leathery shelled eggs on very wet ground where they could absorb water during the embryos' growth. But life on the ground is not without hazards, based on studies of modern reptiles with leathery shelled eggs. Predatory insects and microbes can be a major cause of egg mortality. To counterthis loss of eggs, some of the early reptiles began secreting a thin calcareous (containing calcium carbonate) layer. This hard layer gave the embryos a better chance of surviving until hatching. And these survivors in turn would probably leave more progeny once a few of them reached reproductive age. In time郭家学, a thicker, more resistant shell developed. However, a thicker eggshell meant that less water could be absorbed for the needs of the embryo. To compensate, larger eggs were produced, containing a great deal more albumen (egg white张笑菲 , a water-soluble protein). At this point, the rigid eggshell had reached the bird egg level of complexity.
8..The word counter in the passage is closest in meaning to
○escape
○stop
○combat
○delay
9..According to paragraph 3, early reptiles began to develop a thin calcareous layer around the egg so that
○the embryo could survive attacks from predatory insects and microbes
○the embryo could absorb sufficient water during its growth
○the surviving embryo could reach reproductive age
○the egg could be laid on land
10..Which of the following is mentioned in paragraph 3 as a disadvantage of the hard eggshell
○It increased the hatching period.
○It prevented the development of large-size eggs.
○It made it more difficult for the embryo to obtain water.
○It made it harder for the embryo to survive until hatching.
Paragraph4: Mary Packard presented yet another model with her colleague Roger Seymour. They note that amphibian eggs can never get very large because the gelatin coat surrounding the developing larva is not very good at transmitting oxygen. Because of this restriction, we will never see frog eggs the size of a chicken's. For Packard and Seymour, the major evolutionary breakthroughin reptile eggs was the elimination of the thick gelatin coat and replacing part of it with a fibrous membrane. This change allowed larger eggs to be developed.
11..The wordbreakthroughin the passage is closest in meaning to
○effect
○development
○requirement
○goal
12..Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 4 about the fibrous membrane
○It served the same function as the gelatin coat.
○It was larger than the gelatin coat.
○It allowed amphibians to produce eggs as large as those of reptiles.
○It allowed for better transmission of oxygen.
13..Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
And the relatively few that were produced had to be properly protected.
Where would the sentence best fit Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.
Paragraph2: Another hypothesis was proposed by German paleontologist Rolf Kohring, whose specialty is fossil eggs. In Kohring's model, amphibians during the Mississippian epoch (360¨C320 million years ago) spread into nutrient-poor or cooler water. Because of the harsher conditions, eggs were produced with larger yolks, that is, more nutrients for the embryo. . █ With larger yolks, the eggs were bigger, and fewer of them could be produced by the female--hundreds rather than thousands. █To keep the larger egg intact, one or more membranes were developed, including one that surrounded and protected the egg. █This outer membrane provided a place to safely store calcium ions锦绣侯门 , which are poisonous. █Accumulatingthe calcium in a hard shell then made it possible for the egg to be laid on land (it was pre-adapted to be laid there.)
14.. Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text .
Answer Choices
○Alfred Romer's hypothesis was that early amphibians started evolving reptilian skeletal features long before they started laying eggs on land.
○Alfred Romer theorized that early reptiles developed protective membranes around the egg in response to the dangers to young amphibians in water and threats to the egg on land.
○In Rolf Kohring's view玄门封神 , early reptiles developed protective membranes around the large eggs that were produced in harsh water conditions, making it possible for the egg to be laid on land.
○Gary and Mary Packard claimed that reptiles developed the hard-shelled egg in order to reduce the rate at which eggs were destroyed by predatory insects and microbes.
○Rolf Kohringargued that egg development was poor during the Mississippian epoch due to nutrient-poor waters.
○According to Mary Packard and Roger Seymour, reptiles could not successively develop very large eggs because of the elimination of the gelatin coat.
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这篇是真题班范围中的一篇真题,更多高危真题在真题班上有。真题班3月4月所有场次全中,英文原文原题带音频命中,有答案带讲解!提升实力+命中双重提分!石正方12次课34小时、Yy直播,每次直播课后有录播回放,晚上有事错过直播或者复习都可以随时看录播,录播可以随时反复看禹州天气预报 ,电脑/PAD/手机上都可以学,可以提问包答疑,讲解真题+方法。对本平台回复“报名”获取报名方式,或搜索微信号sijianqifa3后联系报名(也可以咨询)樊韵儿 ,点击本文最下方的“阅读原文”可以直接进入到微店报名链接
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